JUNE 2011


30th June 2011 - New book


M. Maral Mouradia

Publisher's description : Internationally recognized biomedical investigators describe in detail the major techniques employed in molecular and cellular studies of Parkinson's disease and basal ganglia function. Widely varied methods are covered, including genetic analyses, molecular pathogenetic investigations of dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, biochemical studies of nigro-striatal neural circuitry, and molecular therapies, such as gene therapy and neural stem cells. Parkinson's Disease : Methods and Protocols offers those interested in Parkinson's the methods needed to effectively exploit the potential of cell and molecular biology for elucidating disease mechanisms and for speeding the emergence of more effective therapeutics. Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books.


29th June 2011 - New research


Maturitas [2011] Jun 24 [Epub ahead of print] (K.P.Roland, J.M.Jakobi, C.Powell, G.R.Jones) Complete abstract

There are clearly more men than women with Parkinson's Disease. In some countries, the ratio of men to women with Parkinson's Disease is more than 2 to 3 times greater. Only in Russia, and to an even greater extent in  Japan is Parkinson's Disease clearly more common in women. This may be due to the large number of men who died during warfare, rather than an actual greater prevalence. Men and women also differ in the prevalence of certain types of symptoms. Rigidity, postural instability, and also dyskinesia caused by L-dopa have all been found to be more prevalent in females with Parkinson's Disease. Reports suggest that females with Parkinson's Disease also have different walking patterns compared to males with Parkinson's Disease, and women who do not have Parkinson's Disease. Females with Parkinson's Disease also experience increased freezing when walking when compared to men. Balance is also reduced in females with Parkinson's Disease in comparison to men with Parkinson's Disease.
In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


27th June 2011 - New research


Journal of Neurology [2011] Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print] (Kalf JG, Bloem BR, Munneke M.) Complete abstract

Drooling as symptom of Parkinson's Disease has so far been poorly defined. This uncertainty is reflected by high variations in published prevalence rates. Drooling is when saliva flows outside the mouth. Drooling is generally caused by excessive production of saliva, inability to retain saliva within the mouth, or problems with swallowing. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of saliva loss and the accumulation of saliva in Parkinson's Disease as an initial stage, and diurnal (daytime) drooling versus nocturnal (nighttime) drooling.

Of those people with Parkinson's Disease, 29% had no complaints at all with saliva control, 43% of them experienced accumulation of saliva or only nocturnal (nighttime) drooling, and 28% had diurnal (daytime) drooling. Most of those that had daytime drooling had nighttime drooling as well. The longer somebody had Parkinson's Disease the more prone they were to nocturnal (nighttime) drooling. Drooling was independently associated with involuntary mouth opening, and swallowing complaints. Diurnal (daytime) drooling typically appeared as Parkinson's Disease got worse. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


25th June 2011 - New research


Lancet Neurology [2011] 10 (5) : 415-423 (O.Rascol, C.J. Fitzer-Attas, R.Hauser, J.JankovicJ, A.Lang, J.W.Langston, E. Melamed, W.Poewe, F.Stocchi, E.Tolosa, E.Eyal, Y.M.Weiss, C. W.Olanow) Complete abstract

The ADAGIO study investigated whether Rasagiline has disease-modifying effects in Parkinson's Disease. Rasagiline is a MAO-B inhibitor, that is also known by the brand name Azilect. For more information go to Azilect
. Rasagiline 1 mg per day, but not 2 mg per day, was previously shown to have some effect. The present study reported the secondary analysis. The need for additional Parkinson's Disease drugs after using Rasagiline occurred in only 9% of people with both 1mg or 2mg Rasagiline, but 18% when the initiation of Rasagiline was delayed for 36 weeks. 

After 36 weeks both 1mg and 2mg improved Parkinson's Disease symptoms, but only moderately, just as occurred with previous studies. Both doses of Rasagiline moderately improved fatigue and ADL (activities of daily living), with 2mg being better than 1mg. Mental activity improved slightly using 1mg Rasagiline. Those people that delayed the use of Rasagiline started to deteriorate prior to starting Rasagiline, especially in those with more severe symptoms.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


23rd June 2011 - New research


Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry [2011] June 13 [Epub ahead of print] (Uchiyama T, Sakakibara R, Yamamoto T, Ito T, Yamaguchi C, Awa Y, Yanagisawa M, Higuchi Y, Sato Y, Ichikawa T, Yamanishi T, Hattori T, Kuwabara S.) Complete abstract

Urinary dysfunction is common in Parkinson's Disease, but little was known about urinary dysfunction in early and untreated Parkinson's Disease. After excluding those with other conditions that might influence urinary function, patients were evaluated using a urinary questionnaire and urodynamic studies. Nearly two thirds (64%) of those people with Parkinson's Disease complained of urinary symptoms. Over a quarter (28%) had urinary difficulty.

The main cause of urinary difficulty is detrusor underactivity. The detrusor is the muscle that contracts when urinating to squeeze out urine. This is because Parkinson's Disease can affect all muscles, including even those used for urinating. Bladder outlet obstruction was present in 16% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Few patients experienced quality-of-life impairment owing to urinary dysfunction, despite the problems it can cause. The urinary symptoms were not correlated with gender, type of Parkinson's Disease, or disease severity, and so were not likely to worsen over time. In cases with severe difficulty in urinating, other diagnoses should be considered. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


17th June 2011 - New research


Movement Disorders [2011] June 14 [Epub ahead of print] (Bondon-Guitton E, Perez-Lloret S, Bagheri H, Brefel C, Rascol O, Montastruc JL.) Complete abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                  A study assessing over 20,000 adverse drug reactions has found those drugs that can cause or worsen Parkinson's Disease. This is normally described as drug induced Parkinsonism. Among the suspect drugs, most involved central dopaminergic antagonists (49%), followed by antidepressants (8%), calcium channel blockers (5%), peripheral dopaminergic antagonists (5%), and H1 antihistamines (5%). Cases with lithium, valproic acid, amiodarone, anticholinesterases, or trimetazidine were also found. Some problems occurred due to the interaction of other drugs.

The majority (60%) of people affected were female. Nearly half of all people affected were between 60 and 79 years of age. Seriousness was observed in 44% of cases. Nearly 70% of cases were observed during the first 3 months after introduction of the "suspect" drug (involving mainly central dopaminergic antagonists). A second peak (affecting 20% of cases) was found 12 months after drug introduction (mainly due to calcium channel blockers). The most frequently reported symptom was rigidity. Improvement was favourable after partial or complete withdrawal of suspect drugs in 88% of cases. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


13th June 2011 - News release


Abbott have provided details of a Phase 3 clinical trial of LCIG in Parkinson's Disease. LCIG is levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel. Levodopa-carbidopa is the same combination used in Sinemet. LCIG is infused directly and continuously during daytime hours into the small intestine via a portable pump connected to a surgically-implanted gastric tube. It was thought that continuous delivery may help reduce peaks in drug levels due to the inconsistent absorption that happens with orally consumed drugs. After 12 weeks in to the 54 week trial, patients reported an average of 3.9 fewer hours of "off" time and 4.6 more hours of "on" time without dyskinesias. Self reporting after surgery is prone to placebo effect. Figures for a placebo were not given, thus preventing an assessment of how much improvement there was beyond that of a placebo.

Adverse events occurred in 87% of patients, and appeared to be largely related to the surgical procedure. The most common adverse events were : abdominal pain (30%), complications of device insertion (21%), procedural pain (17%), constipation (13%), nausea (13%), excessive granulation tissue (13%), fall (10%), dyskinesia (10%), insomnia (10%), post-operative wound infection (10%), and anxiety (10%). The most severe complications from surgery were : abdominal inflammation (3%),  and gas or air in the peritoneal cavity (5%). For more information go to the News release. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


8th June 2011 - New book


Davis Phinney, Austin Murphy

Publisher's description : Davis Phinney was one of Americaís most successful cyclists. But after years of feeling off, he was diagnosed with early-onset Parkinsonís. The body that had been his ally was now something else : a prison. Davis sought to overcome his Parkinsonís by reaching back to what had made him so successful on the bike. The news of his diagnosis began a dark period, but there was also light. His sonís own bike-racing career was taking off. Determined to beat the Body Snatcher, Davis underwent deep brain stimulation. His symptoms abated enough for him to see his son compete in the Beijing Olympics. With humor and grace, Phinney weaves the narrative of his battle with Parkinsonís with tales from his cycling career and from his sonís emerging career. Click here for more details. In order to refer to this article on its own click here. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books.


1st June 2011 - New research


European Journal of Neurology [2011] 18 (1) : 106-113 (Y.Miyake, W.Fukushima, K.Tanaka, S.Sasaki, C.Kiyohara, Y.Tsuboi, T.Yamada, T.Oeda, T.Miki, N.Kawamura, N.Sakae, H.Fukuyama, Y.Hirota, M.Nagai) Complete abstract

Antioxidant vitamins are expected to protect cells from oxidative damage in Parkinson's Disease by neutralizing the effects of reactive oxygen. However, evidence regarding the association between antioxidant vitamin intake and Parkinson's Disease is limited and inconsistent. So researchers investigated the relationship between the dietary intake of selected antioxidant vitamins, vegetables and fruit and the risk of Parkinson's Disease. Higher consumption of vitamin E and Ŗ-carotene (a form of vitamin A) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's Disease - down to only 45% for vitamin E, and down to 56% for Ŗ-carotene. However, this relationship was only significant in women. The lesser likelihood of Parkinson's Disease was not related to the intake of vitamin C, a-carotene, cryptoxanthin, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, or fruit. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.


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