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SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MOST PREVALENT SYMPTOMS

Earlier Parkinson's Disease

The most common symptoms in earlier Parkinson's Disease are rigidity (stiffness), tremor, bradkynesia (slowness of movement), freezing, falling, microphagia (reduced handwriting size), reduced arm swing, mirror movements, dysarthria (speech difficulties), hypomimia (reduced facial expression), depression, apathy, fatigue, anxiety, pain, sleep disturbance, constipation, dysphagia (swallowing difficulty), urinary symptoms, cardiovascular symptoms, respiratory muscle dysfunction, anosmia (reduced sense of smell), and sexual dysfunction. The perception in patients of which symptoms are the most troublesome often differ from the clinicians view. In earlier Parkinson's Disease, the five most prevalent complaints ranked in descending order were : slowness, tremor, stiffness, pain, and then loss of smell or taste.

Advanced Parkinson's Disease

Some symptoms become far more common as Parkinson's Disease worsens. The most prevalent of these are hypokinesia, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akinesia, dyskinesia, dementia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and siallhorea (drooling). In advanced Parkinson's Disease the five most prevalent complaints ranked in descending order were : fluctuating response to medication (most commonly wearing off, followed by dyskinesia), mood changes, drooling, sleep problems (most commonly middle and late night insomnia followed by daytime sleepiness), and then tremor.


MUSCULAR SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there are symptoms that can affect the muscles generally. These can include rigidity, tremor, hypokinesia (reduced movement), bradykinesia (slowness of movement), akinesia (loss of movement), dyskinesia (abnormal involuntary movements), akathisia (motor restlessness), and dystonia (abnormal involuntary postures).

Those muscular symptoms that can specifically affect the lower limbs are : shuffling (when walking), freezing (feeling unable to walk forwards), festination, falling, and restless legs syndrome.

Those muscular symptoms that can specifically affect the upper limbs are : impaired finger dexterity, micrographia (small handwriting), reduced arm swing, mirror movement, and frozen shoulder syndrome.

Those muscular symptoms that can specifically affect the head and neck are hypomimia (reduced facial expression), reduced blinking, dysarthria (difficulty speaking), and neck rigidity.

The most common symptoms of these in Parkinson's Disease are rigidity (stiffness), tremor, bradkynesia (slowness of movement), freezing, falling, microphagia (reduced handwriting size), reduced arm swing, mirror movements, dysarthria (speech difficulties), and hypomimia (reduced facial expression).


NERVOUS SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there can be an increased likelihood of depression, dementia, pain, sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, apathy, anhedonia, bradyphrenia, alexithymia, anxiety, hallucinations, compulsions, neuropathy, and vertigo. The most prominent and prevalent of these symptoms are depression, apathy, fatigue, anxiety, pain, sleep disturbance and dementia (in more severe Parkinson's Disease).


ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there can be an increased likelihood of constipation, dysphagia (swallowing difficulty), sialorrhea (excessive saliva and drooling), obesity, gastroparesis (slow gastric emptying), and intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The most common symptoms of these in Parkinson's Disease are constipation, which occurs in most people, followed by dysphagia, then sialorrhea, both of which occur in a large minority of people.


URINARY SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there is often nocturia (frequent urinating at night), urinary incontinence (loss of urinary control), increased urinary frequency, and urinary retention (an inability to completely empty the bladder). Urinary symptoms occur in between 27% and 85% of people with Parkinson's Disease.


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Cardiovascular dystautonomia usually occurs in Parkinson's Disease and can include a variety of cardiovascular symptoms. Certain Parkinson's Disease drugs can increase the likelihood of heart failure, in which breathlessness, feeling very tired and ankle swelling are the main symptoms. Cardiovascular symptoms occur in 70% of people with Parkinson's Disease.


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiratory muscle dysfunction usually, but not always, occurs in Parkinson's Disease. Respiratory muscle dysfunction makes respiratory diseases such as pneumonia more dangerous due to the reduced respiratory capacity it causes.


SKELETAL SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there can be an increased likelihood of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Postural deformities can be frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's Disease. The postural deformities can include scoliosis, Pisa syndrome, and camptocormia.


INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there is an increased likelihood of melanoma, which is a form of skin cancer; seborrhea, which is increased sebum secretion; and hyperhidrosis, which is increased sweat secretion. Increased sweat secretion is usually due to Parkinson's Disease drugs.


SENSORY SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there can be an increased likelihood of anosmia (which is a loss of the sense of smell), rhinorrhea (which is nasal discharge), visual disturbance, retinal thinning, hypogeusia (which is impaired sense of taste, and hearing loss. Visual disturbances and anosmia (loss of sense of smell) are particularly prominent in Parkinson's Disease. Most people with Parkinson's Disease have a loss of the sense of smell (anosmia) or reduction in the sense of smell (hyposmia).


ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

In Parkinson's Disease there is an increased likelihood of hyperprolactinemia in the pituitary gland, blunted circadian rhythms in the pineal gland, catecholamine deficiency in the adrenal gland, and hypothyroidism in the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism is not a Parkinson's Disease symptom but can often coincide with Parkinson's Disease.


REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Parkinson's Disease can cause sexual dysfunction in men and women. Sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson's Disease, with over 40% of people with Parkinson's Disease being affected in this way. Over two thirds of people with Parkinson's Disease had decreased sexual activity. Nearly two thirds of people with Parkinson's Disease had a loss of sex drive.


IMMUNE SYSTEM

Neuroinflammation commonly, but not always, occurs in Parkinson's Disease. There is a greater likelihood of CNS infections occurring in Parkinson's Disease after diagnosis, and also before being diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease.

 

 

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