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Parkinson's Disease News covers all significant new research, reports, books, and resources concerning Parkinson's Disease. Articles are chosen on the basis of their medical significance or potential interest. Our overwhelming priority is the facts, regardless of whether they contradict prevailing views or vested interests. Analysis and further information are provided either to explain the background or implications, or to balance misleading claims. If you notice errors or inadequacies, or dispute what is written, or want to propose articles, please e-mail mail@viartis.net.

                                   

 
 

13th  November 2014 - New book

DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION FOR NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

Toru Itakura

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Publisher's description : Chronic electrical stimulation of the brain has demonstrated excellent outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s disease and has recently also been applied to other neurological diseases. This comprehensive, up-to-date book will meet the needs of all who wish to learn more about the application of deep brain stimulation and will provide a sound basis for safe and accurate surgery. The book comprises two main parts, the first of which presents relevant anatomical and functional background information on the basal ganglia, thalamus and other brain structures as well as on the mechanism of brain stimulation. The second part describes clinical studies on deep brain stimulation, covering results in a range of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases and also important aspects of instrumentation and technique. The authors are outstanding scientists and experts from across the world. Click here for more details For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease books In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

8th November 2014 - New research

DELAYING L-DOPA IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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During the past decade, a number of large drug trials have suggested that the initiation of L-dopa therapy should be delayed in order to reduce the risk of motor complications in people with Parkinson's Disease.

Researchers therefore assessed what happened when L-dopa was withheld for a long time after somebody had developed Parkinson's Disease. They studied Ghana, because in Ghana access to medication for Parkinson's Disease means that initiation of L-dopa is often delayed for many years after the onset of Parkinson's Disease. Their data was compared to people with Parkinson's Disease in Italy, where the use of L-dopa is initiated far earlier. Demographic features, frequency and severity of motor and non-motor symptoms were comparable in the two populations. Although L-dopa therapy was introduced much later in Ghana, the duration of Parkinson's Disease when motor fluctuations and dyskinesias started was similar to people in Italy who initiated the use of L-dopa far earlier.

Instead of how early L-dopa was initiated, what was most associated with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias was (1) the duration of Parkinson's Disease and (2) the daily dose of L-dopa (mg/kg of body weight). The average time to the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias after the initiation of L-dopa was surprisingly short as it was only six months.

Reference : Brain [2014] 137 (10) : 2731-2742 (R.Cilia, A.Akpalu, F.S.Sarfo, M.Cham, M.Amboni, E.Cereda, M.Fabbri, P.Adjei, J.Akassi, A.Bonetti, G.Pezzoli)  Complete abstract 

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2nd November 2014 - New book

GUIDE TO ASSESSMENT SCALES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Pablo Martinez-Martin, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez, Maria Joao Forjaz, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri

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Publisher's description : This Guide assesses the key clinimetric attributes in the assessment of Parkinson's Disease, with the intention to offer rapid and pragmatic information on the most relevant scales used. The use of scales for assessment in neurological disorders such as PD arises from the need to quantify disorders and states (such constructs as disability, symptoms, quality of life). Assessment scales are often categorised into two categories: generic (i.e. those scales usable in any health condition), and specific (i.e. scales developed for exclusive use in PD). They can have a variety of components: single-item and multi-item or composite scale; unidimensional and multidimensional; and as disease-centered and patient-centered measures. The creation and validation of scales is complex, with scales undergoing numerous studies to assess criteria such as acceptability, reliability, and responsiveness.  Click here for more details For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease books In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

20th October 2014 - New research

CLINICAL TRIAL RESULTS OF DUAL LAYER L-DOPA

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Dual layer L-dopa (IPX066), which is being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, unusually and advantageously combines the immediate release version of L-dopa with the controlled release version of L-dopa. An application by Impax is with the FDA for the marketing of IPX066 as Rytary. For more information go to Rytary 
                                                                                                                                                                                      The effect of Dual Layer L-dopa on Parkinson's Disease was compared to the effect of Sinemet plus Entacapone, which is one of the most effective formats of L-dopa. IPX066 demonstrated improved efficacy. The average dosage of L-dopa used in IPX066, after accounting for availability, was 22% higher than in Sinemet and Entacapone.

IPX066 demonstrated less "off" time (3.8 hours instead of 5.2 hours per day). IPX066 demonstrated higher "on" time without dyskinesia (11.4 hours instead of 10 hours per day). Other measures favoured IPX066. There were more adverse events when taking IPX066. The most common adverse events were dyskinesia, insomnia, and confusional state for IPX066, and falling for Sinemet and Entacapone.

Reference : Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2014] Aug 15 [Epub ahead of print] (F.Stocchi, A.Hsu, S.Khanna, A.Ellenbogen, A.Mahler, G.Liang, U.Dillmann, R.Rubens, S.Kell, S. Gupta)
Complete abstract 

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13th October 2014 - New research

AIR POLLUTION AND PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Exposure to air pollution has been implicated as a cause of Parkinson's Disease. The first prominent descriptions of Parkinson's Disease came at the time of the Industrial Revolution when pollution levels escalated. Yet, no prospective study has examined the association between particulate matter and the risk of Parkinson's Disease.

After adjusting for age in months, smoking, region, population density, caffeine and ibuprofen intake, there was found to be no statistically significant associations between exposure to air pollution and the risk of Parkinson's Disease. The relative risk of Parkinson's Disease was 1.08 for pollution particles that were less than 2.5 microns in diameter, 0.92 for pollution particles that were 2.5 to 10.0 microns in diameter, and 0.99 for pollution particles that were more than 10.0 microns in diameter. These likelihoods are little different from what would be expected normally.

There are areas of the world where pollution is definitely a serious cause of Parkinson's Disease. One of the world's highest prevalences of Parkinson's Disease is in the vicinities of ferromanganese plants near Brescia in Italy. Manganese concentrations in settled dust were found to be significantly higher in the surroundings and downwind from the ferromanganese plants. In high concentrations, manganese is a known cause of Parkinson's Disease.

Reference : Environmental Health [2014] 13 (1) : 80 [Epub ahead of print] (N.Palacios, K.C.Fitzgerald, J.E.Hart, M.G.Weisskopf, M.A.Schwarzschild, A.Ascherio, F.Laden) Complete abstract 

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10th October 2014 - New research

TWENTY YEARS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Having Parkinson's Disease for more than twenty years has been found to be associated with major milestones of disease disability, fractures, or being confined to a wheelchair or bed. There are a very limited number of studies on the clinical features of Parkinson's Disease twenty years after onset. So an assessment was carried out for several years on people who had Parkinson's Disease for more than twenty years

Those people considered were those who had Parkinson's Disease for 20 to 22 years. They were assessed for an average of nearly four years. Older age at onset and longer duration of Parkinson's Disease were each associated with a higher prevalence of major motor and non-motor milestones of disease disability. Confinement to a wheelchair or bed had by then occurred in just over 1 in 5 people (21%). Those factors making confinement to a wheelchair or bed were older age, postural instability and institutionalisation. Fractures occurred in 16% of people. Fractures were associated with postural instability.

The most frequent outcome was death (28%). However, given the age of diagnosis and the duration of Parkinson's Disease this might have been no more than normal. Mortality was associated with male gender, older age, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), orthostatic hypotension, postural instability, fractures and institutionalisation.

Reference : Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry [2014] Oct 3 [Epub ahead of print] (R.Cilia, E.Cereda, C.Klersy, M.Canesi, A.L.Zecchinelli, C.B.Mariani, S.Tesei, G.Sacilotto, N.Meucci, M.Zini, C.Ruffmann, I.U.Isaias, S.Goldwurm, G.Pezzoli) Complete abstract  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

8th October 2014 - New book

LEVODOPA-INDUCED DYSKINESIA IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Susan H.Fox (Editor), Jonathan M.Brotchie (Editor)

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Publisher's description : This book aims to provide a single reference source on levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) from ‘bench to bedside’. Initial chapters review the clinical features and phenomenology of LID with video examples; epidemiology and genetic risk factors for LID are covered as a background to understanding risk factors for developing LID. The chapters cover the latest preclinical studies aiming to understand the pathophysiology of LID at the cellular, neurochemical, neurophysiological and circuitry level with detailed discussion of mechanisms and future directions to take the field forward; clinical studies from phase II to phase IV; on going RCTs in LID and evidence-based medicine reviews of treatment options. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease is aimed at an international audience of movement disorder neurologists; neuroscientists; trainees and graduate and post-graduate students. Click here for more details  In order to refer to this article on its own click here For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease books

 

5th October 2014 - New research

HANDEDNESS AND PARKINSON'S DISEASE SYMPTOMS

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Whether somebody with Parkinson's Disease is right handed or left handed has been found to greatly affect the side on which their Parkinson's Disease symptoms initiate and persist.

Handedness determines a better performance or preference for the use of one hand rather than the other. For more information go to Handedness 

Out of those people with Parkinson's Disease, 92% were right handed. Nearly 62% of them had an initial onset of symptoms on the right hand side. Out of those people with Parkinson's Disease, 8% were left handed. Around 75% of them had an initial onset of symptoms on the left hand side. Out of those people with Parkinson's Disease who were right handed 77% had Parkinson's Disease symptoms that were dominant on the right hand side. Out of those people with Parkinson's Disease who were left handed 58% of them had Parkinson's Disease symptoms that were dominant on the left hand side.

In general, the dominant side of Parkinson's Disease symptoms was in accordance with which handed they were. In people who were right handed, rest tremor was the most common initial symptom. In people who were left handed, rest tremor and rigidity and bradykinesia were the most common initial symptoms. In order to refer to this article on its own click here Reference : Medicina Clinica [2014] 142 (4) : 141-144 (J.Shi, J.Liu, Q.Qu) Complete abstract

 

1st October 2014 - New research

HORMONES CAN INCREASE THE RISK OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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ParkinsonismMovement Disorders [2014] Sep 25 [Epub ahead of print] (J.I.Lundin, T.G.Ton, A.Z. LaCroix, W.T.Longstreth, G.M.Franklin, P.D.Swanson, T.Smith-Weller, B.A.Racette, H. Checkoway) Complete abstract

Certain types of commonly used oral contraceptives have been found to greatly increase the risk of developing Parkinson's Disease. Oral contraceptives, which includes estrogen and progestin, are a class of drugs widely prescribed to women.  For more information go to Oral contraceptives

Oral contraceptive use by people with Parkinson's Disease were classified as conjugated estrogens, esterified estrogens, or progestin. Ever having used a hormone therapy formulation demonstrated a suggested elevated risk with esterified estrogen use that was three times the normal. However, there was no increase in the risk of developing Parkinson's Disease in those people who had taken conjugated estrogen. Restricting this analysis to prescriptions that included progestin greatly increased the risk associated with esterified estrogen use, making Parkinson's Disease SEVEN times more likely. Progestin also moderately increased the risk of developing Parkinson's Disease in those people who taken conjugated estrogen.

The findings from this study suggest a great increase in Parkinson's Disease risk associated with the use of esterified estrogen combined with progestin, but no risk is associated with conjugated estrogen on its own. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

28th September 2014 - New research

WEARING OFF IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2014] 20 (2) : 204-211 (F.Stocchi, A.Antonini, P.Barone, M.Tinazzi, M.Zappia, M.Onofrj, S.Ruggieri, L.Morgante, U.Bonuccelli, L.Lopiano, P. Pramstaller, A.Albanese, M.Attar, V.Posocco, D.Colombo, G.Abbruzzese) Complete abstract

Wearing off of the effect of drugs for Parkinson's Disease has been found to occur far earlier and in more people with Parkinson's Disease than previously assumed. Wearing off is very individual and there is no standard time frame for when this may occur or which symptoms are experienced. For more information go to Wearing off

Neurologists found that there was wearing off in 57% of people with Parkinson's Disease. However, when this was assessed by the patients themselves, there was found to be wearing off in 67% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Even in people who had Parkinson's Disease for less than 2.5 years there was wearing off in 21% of people when assessed by neurologists and in 41% when patients assessed themselves. The most frequent wearing off symptoms were slowness of movements (55%) and reduced dexterity (48%). Those factors most associated with wearing off were : younger age, female gender, severer symptoms, and duration of treatment.

Wearing Off is already common in the early stages of Parkinson's Disease and is underestimated by routine neurological clinical evaluation. The effect of Parkinson's Disease drugs is therefore often relatively short lived. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

25th September 2014 - New Audiobook

PUT ON YOUR PARKY FACE ! THE EXPANDED VERSION

Bill Schmalfeldt

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Publisher's description : Put on your Parky face is a narrated Audiobook about Parkinson's Disease by widely known Parkinson's Disease blogger Bill Schmalfeldt. Bill is serving notice. It's time for Parkinson's disease patients to stop being invisible. It's time for a nationwide effort to raise awareness about this crippling degenerative neurological disorder and the havoc it wreaks. Having had Parkinson's Disease since 2000 at the age of 45, Bill volunteered for experimental brain surgery in 2007. He spins a humorous, poignant, and sometimes angry tale about his life with this progressive neurological condition. He uses his time, focus and energy to help fund the research that will find the cure. 100% of the author proceeds from this book will be donated to Parkinson's research charities. On the web site there is a good audio sample. Click here for more details   In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

19th September 2014 - New research

TOZADENANT CLINICAL TRIALS FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Lancet Neurology [2014] 13 (8) : 767-776 (R.A.Hauser, C.W.Olanow, K.D.Kieburtz, E. Pourcher, A.Docu-Axelerad, M.Lew, O.Kozyolkin, A.Neale, C.Resburg, U.Meya, C.Kenney, S.Bandak)  Complete abstract

Clinical trials assessed the use 60mg, 120mg, 180mg, or 240mg tozadenant in people with Parkinson's Disease who were being treated with L-dopa and who had motor fluctuations that involved at least 2·5 hours off-time per day. Tozadenant (SYN115) is an inhibitor of the adenosine 2a (A2a) receptor that is being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. For more information go to SYN115

Compared with the use of a placebo, daily off-time was reduced by more than an hour when taking either 120mg or 180mg tozadenant. The most common adverse events were dyskinesia (16% of people taking 120mg, 20% of people taking 180mg), nausea (11% of people taking 120mg, 12% of people taking 180mg), dizziness (5% of people taking 120mg, 13% of people taking 180mg). Tozadenant, 60 mg twice daily, was not associated with a significant reduction in off-time. Tozadenant, 240 mg twice daily, was associated with an increased rate of discontinuation because of adverse events that occurred in 20% of people taking that dosage.

The researchers concluded that Tozadenant at 120 or 180 mg twice daily was generally well tolerated and was effective at reducing off-time. Further investigation of tozadenant treatment in phase 3 trials is warranted. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

11th September 2014 - New research

ENTACAPONE EFFICACY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Acta Neurologica Scandinavica [2014] Sep 3 [Epub ahead of print] (M.Kuoppamäki, M. Vahteristo, J.Ellmén, K.Kieburtz) Complete abstract

A retrospective analysis of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of entacapone show that it improves Parkinson's Disease symptoms but often at the expense of dyskinesia or nausea. Entacapone is marketed as Comtan. In combination with L-dopa and carbidopa (the active constituents of Sinemet) Entacapone is marketed as Stalevo. For more information go to Comtan

Entacapone improved daily OFF and ON times by 0.8 hours (48 minutes) compared with a placebo. People taking entacapone also did better in the standard Parkinson's Disease symptom questionnaire the UPDRS II, UPDRS III, and also global evaluation. Similar benefits of entacapone were seen in subgroups of patients with and without dopamine agonists or selegiline. Entacapone was generally well tolerated. Dyskinesia and nausea were more frequently reported by people taking entacapone, with 25% getting dyskinesia and 14% getting nausea. There was no difference in reports of hallucinations.

The researchers suggest that results of this pooled analysis of entacapone clinical trials potentially serve as a useful benchmarking data for new therapies, especially those including L-dopa, in people with advanced Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

8th September  2014 - News release

SUBCUTANEOUS LIQUID L-DOPA FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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NeuroDerm have announced that the first patients with severe Parkinson's Disease have been enrolled and dosed in a Phase IIa trial of ND0612H. ND0612H is a high-dose form of liquid L-dopa and carbidopa (which is the same as Sinemet) but which is delivered continuously through subcutaneous administration (via the skin) by a belt-pump. Unlike the most comparable methods of administering L-dopa, no surgery at all is needed.

ND0612H is intended to replace current treatments for people with severe Parkinson's Disease that require highly invasive surgery that is associated with serious side effects.

ND0612L is the low dose drug form intended for moderate Parkinson's Disease. ND0612L has just completed patient enrolment and treatment in a Phase II double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. ND0612L was shown in previous phase I and phase IIa studies to be safe and tolerable, reaching steady state, clinically meaningful L-dopa blood concentrations.

ND0612L and ND0612H are the first liquid formulations of L-dopa and carbidopa to be administered subcutaneously (via the skin) to conveniently achieve steady state L-dopa plasma levels. L-dopa and carbidopa are otherwise nearly always administered orally, which can cause motor fluctuations and non-motor complications in Parkinson's Disease. For more information go to NeuroDerm In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

23rd August 2014 - New book

WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY : LIVING WITH THE REALITY OF PARKINSON'S AND THE THREAT OF DEMENTIA

Kirk W.Hall

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Publisher's description : Window of Opportunity is the story of one person's journey through the initial signs of cognitive impairment brought on by Parkinson's disease and how this potentially disabling diagnosis turns into a "Window of Opportunity" to help others on the path. Kirk Hall began noticing small signs of mild cognitive impairment. He tells his story with directness, candor, sensitivity and humor. He describes the long and challenging visits to doctors seeking answers to his disturbing symptoms and the confusion caused by conflicting opinions about the nature and progression of his disease. His journal notes allow him to describe in vivid detail his slowly coming to grips with disability. He shares the internal struggle, anxiety and stress that uncertainty causes, not only for himself but for his family as well. Click here for more details

Kirk W.Hall has also written two children's books concerning Parkinson's Disease - Carina and Her Care Partner Gramma Click here for more details and Carson and His Shaky Paws Grampa Click here for more details

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15th August 2014 - News release

ROBIN WILLIAMS DIES WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Robin Williams (1951-2014) was an American actor and comedian who appeared in numerous films. He recently committed suicide. His wife, Susan Schneider, has made a statement that, at the time of his death, Robin Williams was in the early stages of Parkinson's Disease.

His wife, Susan Schneider wrote : "Robin's sobriety was intact and he was brave as he struggled with his own battles of depression, anxiety as well as early stages of Parkinson's Disease, which he was not yet ready to share publicly. It is our hope in the wake of Robin's tragic passing, that others will find the strength to seek the care and support they need to treat whatever battles they are facing so they may feel less afraid."

Starting as a stand-up comedian in San Francisco and Los Angeles, Robin Williams soon rose to fame as Mork in the TV series Mork & Mindy (1978-1982). His film career included : Popeye (1980), The World According to Garp (1982), Good Morning Vietnam (1987), Dead Poets Society (1989), Awakenings (1990), The Fisher King (1991), Hook (1991), Mrs. Doubtfire (1993), Jumanji (1995), and Night at the Museum (2006). He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times and won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. He sometimes suffered from depression and struggled with drug and alcohol addiction for much of his career. On 11th August 2014 he was found dead after committing suicide by hanging. For more information go to Robin Williams  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

14th August 2014 - News release

WEARABLE SENSORS FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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The Michael J. Fox Foundation and Intel Corporation are partnering to gather and analyse data from Wrist-worn devices worn by people with Parkinson's Disease that track users' movement. The results could help individuals and their doctors better manage their Parkinson's Disease.

A study was launched earlier this year to evaluate three wearable devices for tracking measurable features of Parkinson's Disease such as slowness and frequency of movement. People with Parkinson's Disease wore the devices during two clinic visits and at home over a few days.

Intel engineers are comparing the data obtained from the device to clinical observations and patient diaries in order to test the devices' accuracy. They are developing mathematical formulas to measure the symptoms and the progression of Parkinson's Disease. These devices can capture up to 300 observations per second. So formulas to interpret all that data and report what it means related to someone's Parkinson's Disease can help individuals and their physicians monitor disease.

The next phase of the MJFF-Intel study will capture data to measure medication response such as on/off episodes. Recruitment is expected to begin soon in locations including New York City, Boston and Tel Aviv, Israel. The Michael J.Fox Foundation plans to expand their use to other clinical studies. For more information go to The Michael J.Fox Foundation  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

29th July 2014 - New research

DISCOVERY OF NEW PARKINSON'S DISEASE GENETIC FACTORS

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Nature Genetics [2014] (27 July) (M.A.Nalls, N.Pankratz, C.M.Lill, C.B.Do, D.G. Hernandez, M.Saad, A.L.De Stefano, E.Kara, J.Bras, M.Sharma, C.Schulte, M.F.Keller, S.Arepalli, C.Letson, C.Edsall, H.Stefansson, X.Liu, H.Pliner, J.H.Lee, R.Cheng, et al) Complete abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                    
Six new genetic risk factors for Parkinson's Disease have been discovered. Scientists have identified more than two dozen genetic risk factors involved in Parkinson's Disease, including six that had not previously been reported.

They conducted an extensive analysis of Parkinson's Disease genetic studies. Twenty six sites were identified as having a significant genetic association with Parkinson's Disease. These and six additional sites that had previously not been reported were then tested. In total, they identified and replicated 28 independent risk variants for Parkinson's disease across 24 loci (positions on the gene). Although the effect of each individual genetic risk was found to be small, a risk profile analysis showed that there was a substantial cumulative risk of developing Parkinson's Disease because of them. The risk was actually tripled when several genetic risk factors occurred simultaneously.

Their results suggested that the more variants a person has the greater the risk, which is up to three times higher for developing Parkinson's Disease in some cases. Genetic causes of Parkinson's Disease usually make Parkinson's Disease more likely rather than inevitable. Although genetic causes of Parkinson's Disease are uncommon the actual prevalence is unknown. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

27th July 2014 - New research

NASAL DELIVERY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE TREATMENT

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Expert opinion on drug delivery [2014] 11 (6) : 827-842 (S.Md, S.Haque, M.Fazil, M. Kumar, S.Baboota, J.K.Sahni, J.Ali) Complete abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                     Researchers evaluated whether prepared nanoparticles would be able to target Parkinson's Disease treatments to the brain via the nasal route, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. They tested the method using an optimised nanoformulation of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine for direct nose-to-brain delivery.

The percentage accuracy observed for intra-day and inter-day batch samples was very high. Bromocriptine was found to be stable in all exposed conditions. Bromocriptine nanoparticles also showed greater retention into the nostrils for about four hours. Direct bromocriptine nanoparticle nose-to-brain transport was shown to then bypass the blood-brain barrier. Most importantly, bromocriptine nanoparticles administered nasally showed significantly high dopamine concentrations.

The researchers concluded that Nanoparticle drug delivery system could be potentially used as a nose-to-brain drug delivery carrier for improving the existing means of treating Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

23rd July 2014 - News release

APOMORPHINE CLINICAL TRIAL FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Clinical trials are being undertaken of APL-130277, which is an easy-to-administer, fast acting reformulation of the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Apomorphine is the only approved drug for "off" episodes. As many as half of all people with Parkinson's Disease have "off" episodes in which they have impaired movement or speaking capabilities.

Apomorphine is normally sold as Apokyn, which is injectable. For more information go to Apokyn However, 85% of Apokyn patients have an injection site reaction due to apomorphine's acidity and so must continuously change the injection site. APL-130277 contains a buffer that protects the patient from the acidic properties of Apokyn.

CTH-105 is a Phase 2 clinical study of APL-130277. APL-130277 will be studied in 16 people with Parkinson's disease who have not used apomorphine and who experience at least one daily "off" episode, with a total duration of "off" in any 24-hour period of at least 2 hours. This open study will examine the effect of APL-130277 on relieving "off" episodes over a single day, with dose-titration used to determine dose strengths necessary for future clinical use.

In particular, the dose strength information is necessary in order to conduct the larger CTH-300a efficacy study in apomorphine naive patients, which is expected to commence at the end of 2014. The primary means of assessment will be the change in the UPDRS III score, which is the most widely used Parkinson's Disease symptom questionnaire. For more information go to Cynapsus  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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17th July 2014 - New research

SOCIAL PHOBIAS ARE COMMON IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment [2014] 10 : 829-834 (B.K.Gultekin, B.Ozdilek, E.E. Bestepe) Complete abstract

Researchers aimed to investigate the frequency of social phobias in people with Parkinson's Disease. They also explored the relationship between social phobia and the characteristics of Parkinson's Disease, and the frequency of other psychiatric disorders in Parkinson's Disease.

Social phobia (Social anxiety disorder) is a persistent fear about social situations and being around people. Much more than just shyness it can causes intense, overwhelming fear over what may just be an everyday activity like shopping or speaking on the phone. People affected by it may fear doing or saying something they think will be humiliating. For more information go to Social Phobias Social phobia was diagnosed in 42% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Of those, 58% also had depression, 53% also had anxiety, and 17% also had panic disorders. Social phobia was more frequent in : males, early-onset Parkinson's Disease, people with a long duration of Parkinson's Disease, the presence of postural instability, and with the use of a high L-dopa intakes.

Social phobia is frequently observed in Parkinson's Disease. Therefore, the researchers suggest that the assessment of people with Parkinson's Disease patients should always include psychiatric evaluations, particularly for social phobia.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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14th July 2014 - New research

FREQUENT MISDIAGNOSIS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neurology [2014] Jun 27[Epub ahead of print] (C.H.Adler, T.G.Beach, J.G.Hentz, H.A.Shill, J.N.Caviness, E.Driver-Dunckley, M.N.Sabbagh, L.I.Sue, S.A.Jacobson, C.M.Belden, B.N. Dugger)  Complete abstract

Researchers aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease using neuropathologic diagnosis as the standard. The accuracy of diagnosis was found to be very poor.

Data were used to determine the predictive value of a clinical Parkinson's Disease diagnosis, using two clinical diagnostic confidence levels : PossPD (never treated or not clearly responsive) and ProbPD (responsive to medications).

Using neuropathologic findings of Parkinson's Disease as the standard, this study established a finding of only 26% accuracy for a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease in untreated patients, 53% accuracy in early Parkinson's Disease of less than five years duration that was responsive to medication, and 85% diagnostic accuracy in Parkinson's Disease of longer duration that was medication-responsive. Clinical variables that improved diagnostic accuracy were medication response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and hyposmia (reduced sense of smell).ic accuracy in Parkinson's Disease of longer duration that was medication-responsive.

This study showed that a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease identifies people who will have pathologically confirmed Parkinson's Disease with a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 68%. For more information concerning the diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease go to Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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10th July 2014 - New research

ß-ASARONE INCREASES L-DOPA IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology [2014] Jun 7 [Epub ahead of print] (L.Huang, M.Deng, S.Zhang, Y.Fang, L.Li)  Complete abstract

In order to increase the effect of L-dopa it is usually administered in combination with a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. In Sinemet, L-dopa is combined with carbidopa. In Madopar, L-dopa is combined with benserazide. The co-administration of ß-asarone and Levodopa is being developed as a means of improving the effect of L-dopa even further.

ß-asarone is found in the flowering plant acorus and also in asarum, which is known as wild ginger. For more information go to Ansarone

In animal studies the use of L-dopa in combination with ß-asarone was compared to the use of existing methods of treating Parkinson's Disease. Dopamine levels were found to increase in the brain (in the striatum) and in blood plasma in response to ß-asarone. The co-administration of ß-asarone and L-dopa could also increase the levels in blood plasma of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the enzyme responsible for the formation of L-dopa. Altogether, ß-asarone was found to have an effect on converting L-dopa into dopamine by modulating the activity of dopamine metabolism.

The mechanism of co-administration of ß-asarone and L-dopa is different from that of Sinemet and Madopar in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The co-administration of ß-asarone and L-dopa may be more beneficial to Parkinson's Disease treatment than the existing methods and so could eventually replace them.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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5th July 2014 - New research

THE WORLDWIDE PREVALENCE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Movement Disorders [2014] Jun 28 [Epub ahead of print] (T.Pringsheim, N.Jette, A.Frolkis, T.D.Steeves)   Complete abstract

Researchers sought to synthesize studies on the prevalence of Parkinson's Disease to obtain an overall view of how the prevalence varies by age, gender, and geographic location. Geographic location was stratified by the following groups : Asia, Africa, South America, Europe / North America / Australia. Data were analyzed by age group, geographic location, and gender.

Analysis of worldwide data showed a rising prevalence of Parkinson's Disease with age, with (per 100,000) : 41 in 40 to 49 year olds, 107 in 50 to 59 year olds, 173 in 55 to 64 year olds, 428 in 60 to 69 year olds, 1087 in 70 to 79 year olds, and 1903 in those aged older than 80.A significant difference was seen in prevalence geographically only for people who were 70 to 79 years old, with a prevalence of 1601 (per 100,000) in people in North America, Europe, and Australia, compared to only 646 (per 100,000) in people from Asia. Differences in prevalence according to gender was found only for people who were 50 to 59 years old, with a prevalence of 41 in females and 134 in males.

Parkinson's Disease prevalence worldwide increases steadily with age. Some differences in prevalence according to geographic location and gender can be detected. For more information concerning the prevalence of Parkinson's Disease go to the Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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29th June 2014 - New research

COMPARISON OF L-DOPA, AGONISTS AND MAO INHIBITORS

Lancet [2014] Jun 10 [Epub ahead of print] (Pd Med Collaborative Group)  Complete abstract

Whether the initial treatment for Parkinson's disease should consist of L-dopa, dopamine agonists, or MAO B inhibitors is uncertain. So researchers aimed to establish which of these three classes of drug, as initial treatment, provided the most effective long-term control of symptoms and best quality of life for people with early Parkinson's Disease.

People newly diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned between the use of L-dopa, dopamine agonists and MAO B inhibitors. After three years PDQ-39 mobility scores averaged 1·8 points better in people assigned to L-dopa. PDQ-39 mobility scores were 1·4 points better in people assigned to MAO B inhibitors when compared to those taking dopamine agonists. L-dopa was not significantly advantageous for EQ-5D utility scores, dementia, admissions to institutions, and death rates. Treatments were discontinued in 28% of those taking dopamine agonists, 23% of those taking MAOB inhibitors, but only 2% of those taking L-dopa.

Small but persistent benefits are shown for patient-rated mobility scores when treatment is initiated with L-dopa compared with dopamine agonists and MAO B inhibitors. MAO B inhibitors were found to be at least as effective as dopamine agonists. L-dopa is also clearly more tolerable. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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21st June 2014 - New research

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PARKINSONS' DISEASE

JAMA Neurology [2014] 71 (4) : 463-469 (A.Videnovic, C.Noble, K.J.Reid, J.Peng, F.W. Turek, A.Marconi, A.W.Rademaker, T.Simuni, C.Zadikoff, P.C.Zee)  Complete abstract

People with Parkinson's Disease have been found to have blunted circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are the alterations of endocrine functions that take place in a regulated manner over a roughly 24 hour period. The pineal gland produces melatonin, which is a hormone that regulates the circadian rhythms. For more information go to  Circadian rhythms

The differences and the range of secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland were found to be lower in Parkinson's Disease than in people that do not have Parkinson's Disease. Overall Parkinson's Disease symptoms and duration of symptoms were not significantly related to the circadian rhythm. So it was only daytime sleepiness and not Parkinson's Disease symptoms generally that are affected by the blunted circadian rhythm that can occur in Parkinson's Disease. Dopamine regulates melatonin secretion. Therefore, the reduced dopamine that occurs in Parkinson's Disease will lead to an altered circadian rhythm.

Circadian dysfunction can consequently underlie excessive sleepiness in Parkinson's Disease. Approaches aimed to strengthen circadian function, such as timed exposure to bright light and exercise, might therefore serve as complementary therapies for the nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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9th June 2014 - New research

FAHR'S SYNDROME IS A CAUSE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons - Pakistan [2014] 24 (5) : S104-S106 (N.Dildar, H.Akram, I.M.Qasmi, M.N.Qureshi, S.Khan)  Complete abstract

Fahr's Syndrome is a rare inherited neurological disorder that can present with a wide spectrum of symptoms, including those of Parkinson's Disease. It is characterised by abnormal deposits of calcium in areas of the brain that control movement, including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. For more information go to Fahr's Syndrome

Symptoms of Fahr's Syndrome that are similar to those of Parkinson's Disease may include deterioration of motor function, dementia, dysarthria (poorly articulated speech), tremors, muscle rigidity, a mask-like facial appearance, shuffling gait, and a "pill-rolling" motion of the fingers. These symptoms generally occur later in the development of the disease.

More common symptoms of Fahr's Syndrome include dystonia (disordered muscle tone) and chorea (involuntary, rapid, jerky movements). The age of onset of Fahr's Syndrome is typically in the 40s or 50s, which is similar to Parkinson's Disease, although it can also occur at any time in childhood or adolescence.

Due to the possible similarity of symptoms to those of Parkinson's Disease, Fahr's Syndrome should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in cases of Parkinsonism. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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20th May 2014 - New research

PRAMIPEXOLE CLINICAL TRIAL RESULTS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

European Journal of Neurology [2014] 21 (5) : 736-743 (R.A.Hauser, A.H.Schapira, P. Barone, Y.Mizuno, O.Rascol, M.Busse, C.Debieuvre, M.Fraessdorf, W.Poewe) Complete abstract

The long term safety and efficacy of pramipexole was assessed as an extended-release oral formulation and immediate release formulation in early or advanced Parkinson's Disease. Pramipexole, which is marketed as Mirapex, Mirapexin, and Sifrol, is a dopamine agonist. For more information go to Pramipexole

In those people with early Parkinson's Disease the reported side effects were somnolence (15%), peripheral edema (11%) and back pain (10%). The scores on the Parkinson's Disease symptom score (UPDRS) after over 2 years were down by 6.6 when using extended release pramipexole and 6.3 when using immediate release pramipexole. In those people with advanced Parkinson's Disease the reported side effects were dyskinesia (27%), somnolence (13%), and impulse control disorders (1%). The scores on the Parkinson's Disease symptom score (UPDRS) after over 2 years were down by 11.5 when using extended release pramipexole and 9.1 when using immediate release pramipexole.

In both early and advanced Parkinson's Disease better efficacy was achieved when using the extended release version of pramipexole. The adverse events were typical for dopaminergic drugs. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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16th May 2014 - New research

THE EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Journal of Neurological Science [2014] Apr 24 [Epub ahead of print] (H.J.Kim, B.S.Jeon) Complete abstract

A comprehensive review was carried out to assess the evidence from recent clinical studies regarding the efficacy of acupuncture on Parkinson's Disease. Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese form of medicine in which fine needles are inserted and manipulated into the skin at certain points on the body for therapeutic purposes. For more information go to Acupuncture

Eleven suitable studies were indentified. Two randomized clinical trials failed to show any benefit. The other study did not show beneficial effects of needle acupuncture. Three randomized clinical trials that assessed effects of acupuncture in addition to conventional drugs reported beneficial effects of acupuncture. However, there was no control acupuncture group in those studies. Two uncontrolled studies showed significant positive effects of acupuncture, while other two uncontrolled clinical trials failed. Safety and tolerability were reported only in five clinical trials. No studies evaluated the long lasting effects of acupuncture following cessation of the treatment.

The number of clinical trials, their total sample size, and the way they were carried out, were not enough to prove the favorable effects of acupuncture. So far the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating Parkinson's Disease is not convincing. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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9th May 2014 - New research

DIABETES TREATMENT FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Journal of Parkinson's Disease [2014] Mar 24 [Epub ahead of print] (I.Aviles-Olmos, J.Dickson, Z.Kefalopoulou, A.Djamshidian, J.Kahan, P.E.Fmedsci, P.Whitton, R.Wyse, T. Isaacs, A.Lees, P.Limousin, T.Foltynie)   Complete abstract

Exenatide, which is a treatment for diabetes, has been tested as a disease modifying treatment for Parkinson's Disease. Exenatide is an injected glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist medication marketed as Byett and Bydureon. It is used in the treatment of insulin resistance in patients with Type 2 diabetes. It differs in pharmacological action and chemical structure from insulin. For more information go to Exenatide

Using the MDS-UPDRS, which is a means of assessing the extent of Parkinson's Disease symptoms, people with Parkinson's Disease were assessed who had previously taken Exenatide. People with Parkinson's Disease had an advantage of 5.6 points (with a range of 2.2 to 9.0) on the assessment. They also had a better score when assessed concerning dementia. Unusually, the effect of Exenatide on Parkinson's Disease had continued beyond its use. The authors do not suggest how this diabetes drug can have effect in Parkinson's Disease.

In a previous study, when people with moderate Parkinson's Disease received subcutaneous injections of Exenatide for a year there were marginal improvements in Parkinson's Disease motor and cognitive measures. Exenatide treated patients had a mean improvement after one year on the UPDRS of 2.7 compared with a mean decline of 2.2 points in controls. Exenatide was well tolerated but weight loss was common. For more information go to the  Complete abstract In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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30th April 2014 - New book

ALTER YOUR COURSE : PARKINSON'S - THE EARLY YEARS 

Monique L.Giroux, Sierra M.Farris

Publisher's description : This book is not intended to be filled with facts about the disease; there are many books that cover these topics. Instead we have focused on 2 questions, “Does PD present an opportunity in disguise ? What information, actions or attitudes are most helpful early in the disease to set the stage for living your best now and into the future?” Alter Your Course tells a different story -one that is emerging within you -the person with PD. Your story can be filled with hope, inspiration, empowerment, resiliency and strength. Each chapter concludes with helpful advice designed to help you take control of your PD journey and alter your course. The last chapter is filled with advice; from people like you-living with PD. Click here for more details  For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to go Parkinson's Disease books

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24th  April 2014 - New research

CLINICAL TRIAL OF GENE THERAPY FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Lancet [2014] 383 (9923) : 1138-1146 (S.Palfi, J.M.Gurruchaga, G.S.Ralph, H.Lepetit, S.Lavisse, P.C.Buttery, C. Watts, J.Miskin, M.Kelleher, S.Deeley, et al)  Complete abstract

ProSavin (NLX-P101) uses LentiVector gene delivery technology to deliver genes for three enzymes they suggest are required for the formation of dopamine. The product is administered locally to the relevant region of the brain in order to increase the brain's own capacity for the formation of dopamine. For more information go to Prosavin

In a clinical trial of Prosavin, 15 patients received ProSavin, with three people taking a low dose, six taking a mid dose, and six taking a high dose. During the first 12 months 54 drug-related adverse events were reported (51 mild and 3 moderate). The most reported were increased dyskinesias, and on-off phenomena. No serious adverse events related to the drug or the surgical procedure were reported. A moderate improvement in mean Parkinson's Disease symptom scores was recorded in all patients tested at 6 months and 12 months.

In a previous clinical trial the degree of efficacy was quite moderate, with an average 27% improvement after 3 months, peaking at 31% after 6 months, and declining to 23% after 2 years. In the long term stimulating gene and enzyme levels artificially reduces a person's own formation of those genes and enzymes. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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15th  April 2014 - New research

GOOGLE GLASS BEING TESTED FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Newcastle University are investigating Google Glass as an assistive aid in order to help people with Parkinson's Disease retain their independence for longer.

Glass is a wearable computer being developed by Google. At first glance Glass appears to be no more than a pair of designer glasses. However, the system works like a hands-free smartphone that displays visual information on the lens of the Glass.

The technology is voice-operated and is also linked to the internet. It is not currently available outside the USA. For more information go to a review of Google Glass

Researchers have been working with a group of Parkinson's Disease volunteers aged between 46-70 years. They are working on the next stage of the project, using the technology to provide discreet prompts linked to key behaviours typical of Parkinson's Disease, such as reminding the individual to speak up or to swallow to prevent drooling. Glass can also be used as a personal reminder for things such as taking medication and making appointments. Glass is connected to the internet so that the wearer can link it to computers and mobile phones. So if the wearer is alone they just have to look through the Glass so that carers or relatives will be able to see exactly where they are. The wearer can also tell it to call someone and it rings them. For more information go to Newcastle University  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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7th  April 2014 - New research

THE NAZI DISCOVERER OF L-DOPA FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 2014 Apr 3 [Epub ahead of print] (H.Czech, L.A. Zeidman) Complete abstract

Walther Birkmayer, an Austrian neurologist, co-discovered the effectiveness of L-dopa for Parkinson's Disease in 1961. However, Birkmayer was a member of SS and a member of the Nazi party. Little has been previously published regarding Birkmayer's ties to Naziism.

Researchers have determined that Birkmayer was not only an early illegal member of the SS and the Nazi party but also took part in "de-Jewification". He also was a leader in the Nazi racial policy office and was praised for his dedication and fanaticism despite being forced to later resign from the SS. He sought support from leading Viennese Nazis and was able to maintain his professional status for the war's remainder. Postwar, he succeeded at reintegration personally and professionally into Austrian society, all but erasing any obvious ties to his Nazi past.

In 1960 Dr. Hornykiewicz demonstrated that dopamine levels were below normal in the brains of people who died of Parkinson's Disease. He and Dr. Arvid Carlsson, believed that L-dopa, a precursor in the biosynthesis of dopamine, could treat Parkinson's Disease. Dr. Hornykiewicz and Dr. Birkmayer began to treat patients with L-dopa. They noticed marked short-term improvements. They published their findings in 1961, which eventually led to L-dopa being the most widely used treatment for Parkinson's Disease. For more information go to Walther Birkmayer  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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2nd April 2014 - New clinical trial

ISRADIPINE BEING TESTED FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

After proving relatively safe in a study funded by The Michael J.Fox Foundation, Isradipine is moving to Phase III testing of its effect on Parkinson's Disease thanks to a $23 million grant from the National Institute of Health. They hope to enrol more than 300 participants at 56 clinical sites throughout North America. For more information go to The Michael J.Fox Foundation

Isradipine is a calcium channel blocker that is marketed as Dynacirc. Dynacirc is a drug that is prescribed to treat high blood pressure. For more information concerning Dynacirc go to Medline Plus

The basis for the clinical trial is that data from large studies found that there was a lower incidence of Parkinson's Disease among those people who took Isradipine.

However, when Isradipine was tested in Phase II clinical trials in people who had Parkinson's Disease Isradipine caused side effects. The most common adverse events were peripheral edema and dizziness. Isradipine also failed to have any significant effect on Parkinson's Disease symptoms. For more information go to the Phase II clinical trial

In order to effectively treat Parkinson's Disease effectively dopamine formation must be increased but, even in theory, calcium channel blockers can not do that.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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28th March 2014 - New research

COENZYME Q10 HAS NO EFFECT IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

JAMA Neurology [2014] Mar 24 [Epub ahead of print] (M.F.Beal, D.Oakes, I.Shoulson, C. Henchcliffe, W.R.Galpern, et al) Complete abstract

Coenzyme Q10, an antioxidant that has been widely used for Parkinson's Disease has been found to have no significant effect. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a supplement, which supports mitochondrial function in the neurons, and has been claimed to slow the progression of Parkinson's Disease. For more information go to Medline Plus

People with Parkinson's Disease were given either a placebo, 1200mg of CoQ10 per day, or 2400mg of CoQ10 per day. All of them were also given 1200 IU per day of vitamin E. Participants were observed for 16 months or until a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. The treatments were well tolerated with no safety concerns. However, the worsening of Parkinson's Disease was actually related to the higher Coenzyme Q10 dose. Those taking no Coenzyme Q10 worsened by 6.9 points on the UPDRS. Those taking 1200mg worsened by 7.5 points. Those taking 2400mg worsened by 8.0 points. So Coenzyme Q10 was not only not beneficial it appeared, if anything, to be detrimental.

In previous studies Coenzyme Q10 was found to be ineffective in Parkinson's Disease in daily doses of 200mg, 300mg, 400mg, 600mg, and 800mg. Only one Coenzyme Q10 study has ever shown any improvement in Parkinson's Disease, using 360mg, but the effects were mild and were only assessed for four weeks. Daily doses of 300mg, 600mg and 1200 mg failed to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease but reduced the rate of deterioration.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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23rd March 2014 - New research

PARKINSON'S DISEASE INCREASES THE RISK OF INJURIES

European Journal of Neurology [2014] Mar 17 [Epub ahead of print] (H.C.Wang, C.C.Lin, C.I.Lau, A,Chang, F.C.Sung, C.H.Kao) Complete abstract

People with Parkinson's Disease have been found to increase their likelihood of most accidental injuries, especially head injuries. The risk of injury increases with age.

People with Parkinson's Disease were found to have the following increased likelihood of injuries times what is normal : head injury 1.9, bone fracture and dislocation 1.4, all injuries 1.3, injury to spinal cord, plexus and nerves 1.25, superficial injuries and contusions 1.20, burns 1.0.

The injury risk for those people with Parkinson's Disease who were 69-79 years old was significantly higher than those who were 50-69 years old.

So people with Parkinson's Disease demonstrate a significantly elevated risk of developing all accidental injury types except injuries caused by burns. The risk of injury increases as age increases. In previous studies Coenzyme Q10 was found to be ineffective in Parkinson's Disease in daily doses of 200mg, 300mg, 400mg, 600mg, and 800mg. Only one Coenzyme Q10 study has ever shown any improvement in Parkinson's Disease, using 360mg, but the effects were mild and were only assessed for four weeks. Daily doses of 300mg, 600mg and 1200 mg failed to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease but reduced the rate of deterioration. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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22nd March 2014 - New research

THE EFFECT OF AGE OF ONSET ON PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2014] Feb 22 [Epub ahead of print] (R.Mehanna, S.Moore, J.G.Hou, A.I.Sarwar, E.C.Lai) Complete abstract

The clinical features and development of Parkinson's Disease has been found to differ in many respects according to the age of onset of Parkinson's Disease.

The age of onset can be roughly divided in to young onset (49 years old or younger), middle onset (50 to 69 years old), and late onset (70 years old or later). Data collected included age at symptom onset, year of onset, family history of Parkinson's disease in first and second degree relatives, predominant first symptom, first anti parkinsonian medication prescribed, frequency of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, therapy related dystonia, therapy related gastrointestinal side effects, hallucinations, dementia, depression and apathy. In numbers, the middle onset was the largest group (51%), followed by those with late onset (39%) and then those with young onset (10%).

Those with young onset were found to have a more frequent family history of Parkinson's disease and longer survival. Symptoms other than tremor were more frequent as the initial symptom of the young onset group. Depression was more frequent in the young onset group than middle onset or old onset. The frequency of tremor as the first symptom increased with advancing age at onset. The frequency of treatment related dyskinesia or dystonia decreased with advancing age at onset. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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10th March 2014 - New research

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ACCURATELY DIAGNOSES PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Radiology [2014] Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print] (M.Cosottini, D.Frosini, I.Pesaresi, M.Costagli, L.Biagi, R.Ceravolo, U.Bonuccelli, M.Tosetti) Complete abstract

Parkinson's Disease has been diagnosed with almost complete accuracy using a scanning method called Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body. An MRI scanner is a large tube that contains powerful magnets. The patient lays inside the tube during the scan and is moved into the scanner either head or feet first. The MRI scanner is operated by a radiographer who controls the scanner using a computer. For more information go to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

An evaluation was carried out of the substantia nigra (SN) of people who did and who did not have Parkinson's Disease. The substantia nigra (SN) is the area of the brain most affected by Parkinson's Disease. Deviations from the normal appearance of the substantia nigra were described and indicated as abnormal. The abnormal architecture of the substantia nigra allowed a discrimination between people who did and who did not have Parkinson's Disease with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96% respectively. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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5th March 2014 - New research

L-DOPA'S EFFECT ON NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Mymensingh Medical Journal [2014] 23 (1) : 18-23 (M.M.Rahman, M.J.Uddin, J.H. Chowdhury, T.I.Chowdhury) Complete abstract

People with Parkinson's Disease have the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease but also have a wide range of non-motor symptoms. Although L-dopa is a widely used basis for treating Parkinson's Disease, L-dopa (with carbidopa) has been found to have little effect on many of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

When assessed, the most frequent non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease were fatigue 56%, excessive sweating 54%, insomnia 54%, akathisia (restlessness) 47%, anxiety 45%, and constipation 17%. However, after five months of taking L-dopa and carbidopa, frequencies of most of the non-motor symptoms decreased only slightly, showing that there was little significant effect of L-dopa and carbidopa.

Some non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease are not improved by taking L-dopa because they are due to the side effects of Parkinson's Disease drugs. Some non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease are not improved much by taking L-dopa because they are due to a combination of Parkinson's Disease and other factors that are not related to the dopamine deficiency that occurs in Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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4th March 2014 - New research

THE EFFECT OF MILD BRAIN INJURY ON PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation [2014] 95 (3S) : S238-S244 (C.Marras, C.A.Hincapié, V.L. Kristman, C.Cancelliere, S.Soklaridis, A.Li, J.Borg, J.L.Geijerstam, J.D. Cassidy) Complete abstract

Researchers assessed all of the studies concerning the risk of Parkinson's Disease after mild traumatic brain injury. Sixty-five studies were eligible and reviewed, but only five of these with a low risk of bias were accepted as scientifically admissible.

One of the five studies showed a significant association between Mild traumatic brain injury and Parkinson's Disease. It was found to be 1.5 times more likely. However, the likelihood decreased when the time between the injury and Parkinson's Disease diagnosis was greater. The other four studies did not find any association. So the available evidence argues against a causal association between Mild traumatic brain injury and Parkinson's Disease. Although Parkinson's Disease is often claimed to be due to the loss or damage of the cells involved in Parkinson's Disease not a single study has ever shown this to be true. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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28th February 2014 - New research

CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

JAMA Neurology [2014] Feb 24 [Epub ahead of print] (A.Videnovic, C.Noble, K.J.Reid, J.Peng, F.W.Turek, A.Marconi, A.W.Rademaker, T.Simuni, C.Zadikoff, P.C.Zee) Complete abstract

Diurnal fluctuations of Parkinson's Disease symptoms and a high prevalence of sleep-wake disturbances in Parkinson Disease suggest that the circadian rhythm is affecting these symptoms. The circadian rhythm is a roughly 24 hour cycle that regulates physiological processes by various factors such as daylight. Secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland is largely responsible for this regulation. For more information go to Circadian rhythms

People with Parkinson's Disease have been found to have blunted circadian rhythms. The differences and the range of secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland were found to be lower in Parkinson's Disease than in people that do not have Parkinson's Disease. Compared with people who had Parkinson's Disease who did not have excessive daytime sleepiness, people with excessive daytime sleepiness had narrower ranges of melatonin secretion. Overall Parkinson's Disease symptoms and duration of symptoms were not significantly related to the circadian rhythm. So it was only daytime sleepiness and not Parkinson's Disease symptoms generally that can be affected by the blunted circadian rhythm that can occur in Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.   

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27th February 2014 - History

EARTHWORMS AND OIL OF WINGED ANTS FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician and astrologer. He published books, The English Physitian (1652) and the Complete Herbal (1653). The Complete Herbal contains both pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge. Among the recommendations in Complete Herbal, he suggests sage for "sinews, troubled with palsy and cramp". For centuries prior to this, Sage had also been recommended for tremor in the hands. Amongst other plant remedies Culpepper suggested for palsy and trembling were bilberries, briony (called "English mandrake"), and mistletoe. In the 1696 edition of his Pharmacopoeia Londinensis, a variety of substances were claimed to be useful in the treatment of "palsies", the "dead palsy", and "tremblings". These included "oil of winged ants" and preparations including earthworms. For more concerning the history of Parkinson's Disease go to the History of Parkinson's Disease.   

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12th February 2014 - New research

HEARING LOSS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

European Journal of Neurology [2014] Feb 10 [Epub ahead of print] (S.W.Lai, K.F.Liao, C.L.Lin, C.C.Lin, F.C.Sung)  Complete abstract

Hearing loss has been found to be three times more likely in elderly people who have Parkinson's Disease. This is partly due to the increased prevalence of loss of hearing with age. However,  hearing loss is still 1.77 times more likely in elderly people with Parkinson's Disease than it is in elderly people who do not have Parkinson's Disease.

Hearing is perceived in the Cochlea, in the Organ of Corti, which is the sensory organ of hearing. For more information go to Cochlea. Dopamine, whose deficiency causes Parkinson's Disease, helps to protect against  noise exposure in the Cochlea  [1]  [2]  [3]  [4]. Insufficient dopamine can therefore lead to damage that can result in loss of hearing. The cause of the increased likelihood of loss of hearing that can occur in Parkinson's Disease is therefore originally probably biochemical rather than structural.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

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11th February 2014 - New book

PIONEERS OF RECOVERY : HOW PEOPLE WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE REVERSE THEIR SYMPTOMS

Robert Rodgers

Publisher's description : Parkinsons Recovery Radio show guests often talk about how they reversed the symptoms of Parkinsons Disease. Now you can read nine of these amazing stories as they were first told on the radio show in this 2012 release of Pioneers of Recovery. Each chapter includes details on the steps that each pioneer took to make miracle of healing happen. Therapies that paved the road to recovery include : TMJ adjustments, Candida cleanses, Voice Profiling, sound therapy, Tai Chi, Martial Arts, Qigong, Low Dose Naltrexone, forced exercise, Chinese medicine, supplements, diet, detoxes. You will be intrigued by how each pioneer went about reversing their symptoms Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books  

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8th February 2014 - New review

SKIN DISORDERS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

The integumentary system is the skin and its associated glands, including the sweat glands, the sebaceous glands, and the hair and nails. Those medical disorders asociated with the skin that commonly occur in Parkinson's Disease are seborrhea, hyperhidrosis, and melanoma.

Seborrhea causes excessively oily skin. Sebaceous glands are glands in the skin that secrete sebum, to lubricate the skin and hair. Seborrhea can therefore result in excessive secretion of sebum by the sebaceous glands and its accumulation on the skin surface. There is an increased likelihood of seborrhea in Parkinson's Disease that is due to low dopamine. For more information go to Seborrhea

Hyperhidrosis is overactive sweat glands. Hyperhidrosis can therefore result in excessive sweat secretion. There is an increased likelihood of hyperhidrosis in Parkinson's Disease. Instead of being due to Parkinson's Disease, the increased sweat secretion is usually due to Parkinson's Disease drugs. As an unintended side effect L-dopa can produce adrenaline, which stimulates the sweat glands. For more information go to Hyperhidrosis

Melanoma is a form of skin cancer. The risk of melanoma could sometimes be as much as four to five times higher in Parkinson's Disease. The melanocyes in the skin produce melanin, which is made from L-tyrosine via L-dopa. This is the same means as dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons. Given that melanin helps to protect skin cells from Ultra Violet induced damage, melanoma is probably increased in Parkinson's Disease because of the reduced capacity to produce L-dopa in the melanocytes. For more information go to Melanoma In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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23rd January 2014 - New review

RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

The excessive muscle contraction that Parkinson's Disease causes can affect the muscles that control respiration. Consequently, the breathing rate in Parkinson's Disease can often not be sustained as well, and breathing efficiency can be reduced [1]. There is often abnormal ventilatory control despite normal lung volumes and flows [2]. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance also are decreased [3].

Due to the reduced respiratory capacity, people with Parkinson's Disease are more prone to the effects of pneumonia, which occurs more commonly than expected in Parkinson's Disease, but not because of Parkinson's Disease [4]. Consequently, pneumonia is the most common cause of death associated with Parkinson's Disease [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. For more information concerning pneumonia go to Pneumonia. However, death certificates indicated that Parkinson's Disease was a substantial contributor to the cause of death in only 20% of people with Parkinson's Disease [11]. For 80% of people there were other causes. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

19th January 2014 - New research

VISUAL DISTURBANCES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2013] Dec 27 [Epub ahead of print] (P.Urwyler, T.Nef, A.Killen, D.Collerton, A.Thomas, D.Burn, I.McKeith, U.P.Mosimann) Complete abstract

Visual symptoms are common in Parkinson's Disease but are frequently under-diagnosed. The detection of visual symptoms is important for differential diagnosis and patient management. The causes of visual symptoms divides between Parkinson's Disease and Parkinson's Disease drugs. Parkinson's Disease can cause visual disturbances by affecting the muscles of the eye. Parkinson's Disease drugs in excess can cause visual hallucinations. Recurring visual complaints emerged as risk factors predictive of the minor forms of hallucinations, but not recurrent complex visual hallucinations.

Researchers established the prevalence of recurrent visual complaints (RVC) and recurrent visual hallucinations (RVH) in Parkinson's Disease. The most common visual disturbances were found to be : double vision (in 18% of people with Parkinson's Disease), misjudging objects when walking (in 12%), words moving whilst reading (in 17%), and freezing in narrow spaces (in 30%), which was almost exclusively found in people with Parkinson's Disease. The same was true for recurring complex visual hallucinations and illusions, which were found in 17% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Recurring visual complaints were found in 43% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Recurring visual hallucinations were found in 29% of people with Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

13th January 2014 - New research

PROSAVIN CLINICAL TRIAL RESULTS FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 10 January 2014 (S.Palfi, J.M.Gurruchaga, G.S.Ralph, H.Lepetit, et al) Complete abstract

ProSavin uses LentiVector gene delivery technology to deliver genes they suggest are required for the formation of dopamine. The product is administered locally to the relevant region of the brain in order to increase the brain's own capacity for the formation of dopamine. For more information go to Prosavin

A clinical trial assessed the safety and efficacy of ProSavin after bilateral injection into the brains of 15 people who had Parkinson's Disease for more than 5 years. Three doses were assessed : low dose, mid dose and high dose. During the first 12 months 54 drug-related adverse events were reported (51 mild and 3 moderate). The most common adverse events were increased dyskinesias (in 11 out of 15 patients) and on-off phenomena (in 9 out of 15 patients). No serious adverse events related to the study drug or surgical procedure were reported. There was a moderate improvement in Parkinson's Disease symptom scores after 6 months and 12 months. However, in a previous study moderate improvements started declining after only 6 months. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

12th January 2014 - New book

OXFORD TEXTBOOK OF MOVEMENT DISORDERS

David Burn

Publisher's description : This volume covers the basic science and clinical concepts underlying movement disorders, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of individual hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. Written to aid understanding and treatment of a wide range of movement disorders, it includes a section covering the miscellaneous causes that are routinely encountered by neurologists. It is also supplemented with illustrative video clips that can be accessed through the concurrent online edition. Although firmly rooted in evidence-based management approaches, the authors included their own top tips and experience on the management of difficult cases where no current guidance exists.  Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books 

 

8th January 2014 - New research

THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PROBLEMS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2013] 19 (7) : 666-669 (Y.E.Kim, W.W.Lee, J.Y.Yun, H.J.Yang, H.J.Kim, B.S. Jeon)  Complete abstract

The prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was found to be significantly higher Parkinson's Disease. Around two thirds of people with Parkinson's Disease have them. Only just over a quarter of people with Parkinson's Disease answered that their musculoskeletal problems were recovering.  Musculoskeletal problems also tended to receive less treatment when people had Parkinson's Disease.

Common sites of musculoskeletal problems were the lower back, shoulder and knee in that order. The lower back was the site of musculoskeletal problems in nearly half of people with Parkinson's Disease. The shoulder and knee were affected far less often. Among the past diagnoses associated with musculoskeletal problems, frozen shoulder, low back pain, osteoporosis and fracture were more common in people with Parkinson's Disease. Older age, being female, and having a higher score on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale were associated with more musculoskeletal problems.  For more information go to Musculoskeletal disorders. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

7th January 2014 - New book

PARKINSON'S DISEASE : IMPROVING PATIENT CARE 

Jason S.Hawley, Melissa J.Armstrong, William J.Weiner

Publisher's description : Improving Patient Care is a clinically-focused text for healthcare professionals involved in the everyday management of Parkinson's disease patients. Primary care physicians, general neurologists, medical trainees, and ancillary therapists including mental health professionals, speech therapists, and physical therapists will all find helpful information regarding caring for patients with Parkinson's disease. The 12 chapters cover all aspects of Parkinson's disease care from diagnosis, test selection and early management to handling complications, deciding whether surgical options are appropriate, managing Parkinson's disease patients in the inpatient setting and supporting patients and families during late-stage complications.  Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books  

 

29th December 2013 - New research

L-DOPA PRODRUG FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Movement Disorders [2013] Dec 13 [Epub ahead of print (P.A.Lewitt, F.J.Huff, R.A.Hauser, D.Chen, D.Lissin, K.Zomorodi, K.C.Cundy)  Complete abstract

XP21279 is a new L-dopa prodrug being developed by Xenoport for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. It uses naturally occurring, high capacity nutrient transporters in the gastrointestinal tract to generate active and efficient absorption into the body.

XP21279-carbidopa sustained-release bilayer tablets were developed to provide more continuous exposure to L-dopa. Once absorbed, XP21279 is rapidly converted into L-dopa. In a clinical trial of XP21279, people with Parkinson's Disease were given either XP21279 with carbidopa, or L-dopa with carbidopa, which as Sinemet is the most common means of treating Parkinson's Disease.

The average daily off time was reduced more when using XP21279 but only by 18 minutes. There was little difference between the two in their effect on dyskinesia. However, XP21279 significantly reduced the variability of L-dopa concentration that occurs when using Sinemet (L-dopa and carbidopa). This was achieved by taking XP21279 only three times per day, instead of the four to five times a day that the L-dopa with carbidopa was taken. Therefore, overall, although L-dopa and carbidopa as Sinemet is the most common means of treating Parkinson's Disease, XP21279 was found to be more advantageous. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

28th December 2013 - New research

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND THE RISK OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Movement Disorders [2013] Dec 18 [Epub ahead of print] (R.Liu, D.Baird, Y.Park, N.D.Freedman, X.Huang, A.Hollenbeck, A.Blair, H.Chen)  Complete abstract

In the largest ever study of its kind, researchers examined female reproductive factors and the risk of Parkinson's Disease. The study involved nearly 120,000 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 71 years.  The risk of developing Parkinson's Disease was not significantly associated with female reproductive factors including age at first menstruation, age at first live birth, and age at menopause generally.

However, there was a tendency for an increased risk of Parkinson's Disease in those women who reached menopause when they were 55 or older. Current hormone users for less than 5 years showed a higher risk of developing Parkinson's Disease, which was anywhere between 11% more likely to more than twice as likely. However, this association disappeared for current hormone users after 5 years of use.  Oral contraceptive use for ten years was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's Disease, down to 59% of what would otherwise be expected. In order to refer to this article on its own click here  

 

20th December 2013 - New review

PESTICIDES ON AIRCRAFT AS A CAUSE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Flight attendants who have developed Parkinson's Disease have taken legal action to try to prove that they have developed Parkinson's Disease because of the insecticides that are routinely sprayed inside  aircraft. For more information go to News report and News report

Those pesticides that are known to cause, or be highly associated with Parkinson's Disease are Dieldrin, Rotenone and Organophosphorus pesticides. The fungicides Maneb and Paraquat are also known causes of Parkinson's Disease. Evidence in support of Permathrin, which is used in aircraft, is presently restricted to three animal studies.

Dieldrin levels are above normal in brains of people with Parkinson's Disease. Dieldrin was the most frequently detected Organochlorine pesticide in people with Parkinson's Disease thereby suggesting that dieldrin is associated with Parkinson's Disease. Organophosphorus pesticides are significantly associated with Parkinson's Disease. The frequent use of household pesticides containing Organophosphorus chemicals increased the chances of developing Parkinson's Disease by 71%. Exposure can lead to Parkinsonism. Rotenone can cause the neurochemical, neuropathological and behavioural features of Parkinson's disease, including hypokinesia and rigidity. In order to refer to this article on its own click here 

 

19th December 2013 - New book

DBS A PATIENT GUIDE TO DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION

Sierra M.Farris, Monique L.Giroux

Publisher's description :  DBS A Patient Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation by DBS experts Sierra Farris and Monique Giroux distill a high tech brain surgery into understandable terms for every reader. The authors bring 14 years’ experience working as a DBS team in treating over 1000 patients. Their easy to read format is packed with practical tips in a patient-centered approach. The authors hope to promote patient empowerment by offering insights that are rarely shared outside the clinic appointment. Filled with case studies, personal stories, practical tips and unique graphics, this book offers in-depth easy to understand explanations for one of the most high tech procedures that can turn back the clock on neurological disease.  Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books  

 

14th December 2013 - News release

ANTIBODIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Roche and Prothena are collaborating to co-develop antibodies for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. Prothena's antibody for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, PRX002,  targets alpha-synuclein. PRX002 is currently in preclinical development. It is expected to enter Phase 1 clinical trials in people with Parkinson's Disease in 2014. PRX002 has already been tested in various cellular and animal models of synuclein-related disease.

Synuclein proteins are found throughout the body. One protein from this family, alpha-synuclein, is found extensively in neurons and characterize several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's Disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1, and multiple system atrophy, which collectively are termed synucleinopathies. As part of the agreement, Roche and Prothena will initiate a research collaboration focused on including incorporation of Roche's proprietary Brain Shuttle technology to increase delivery of therapeutic antibodies to the brain. For more information go to the News release  In order to refer to this article on its own click here
 

                                                                                                                                                                                         10th December 2013 - New book

PARKINSON'S DISEASE TRAPPED - IT'S A GREY MATTER

 Christopher C. Evans

Publisher's description :  Parkinson’s disease 'Trapped' questions and expands our understanding of Parkinson’s disease. Accessible and meticulously researched, the observations illuminate the grey matter of brain science. It examines three regions of the brain and how these relate to symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting insights that lead to the discovery of a unique potential cause. Exploring the effects of trauma and lack of blood supply to the brain, it finds missing pieces of the Parkinson’s puzzle. This book explains why people, who smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, have high cholesterol, and drink too much coffee are less likely to get Parkinson's disease. It presents a controversial three phase model of neurodegeneration.  Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books  

 

17th November 2013 - New research

FUNGAL CAUSE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA [2013] Nov 11 [Epub ahead of print] (A.A.Inamdar, M.M.Hossain, A.I.Bernstein, G.W.Miller, J.R.Richardson, J.W.Bennett) Complete abstract

Octenol (1-octen-3-ol), which is commonly known as mushroom alcohol,,is produced by several plants and fungi. For information go too Octenol. In Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly) Octenol reduces the levels of dopamine, the substance whose deficiency causes Parkinson's Disease.

Although it has not yet conclusively been proven to have caused Parkinson's Disease in humans, further experiments in human cells revealed that Octenol interfered with two genes involved in the creation of dopamine - the human plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) and the human VMAT ortholog (VMAT2). This demonstrates that 1-octen-3-ol exerts toxicity via disruption of dopamine homeostasis and so may represent a naturally occurring cause of Parkinsonism. Octenol can often be inhaled by humans after being produced in damp, mouldy or water damaged buildings. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.  

                                                                                                                                                                                  

16th Novemberr 2013- New book

PARKINSON'S DISEASE : A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR PATIENTS AND FAMILIES

 William J.Weiner, Lisa M.Shulman, Anthony E.Lang

Publisher's description :  Patients and families have long relied on this book for reliable advice about medical, emotional, and physical issues. Bringing this guide up to date, three expert neurologists describe : New understandings gained by five years of additional research on Parkinson’s disease, a new focus on exercise, imaging techniques such as SPECT Scan and DATScan that are aiding in diagnosis, new findings about the genetics, promising uses of new technologies such as tablet devices for people who have trouble communicating, information about impulse control disorders caused by some drugs used to address the symptoms of the disease, A complete update on treatments. Click here for more details. For more books concerning Parkinson's Disease go to Parkinson's Disease Books.  

 

12th November 2013 - New research

NEW DRUG FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE PSYCHOSIS

Lancet [2013] Oct 31 [Epub ahead of print] (J.Cummings, S.Isaacson, R.Mills, H.Williams, K.Chi-Burris, A.Corbett, R.Dhall, C.Ballard) Complete abstract

Parkinson's Disease psychosis, which includes hallucinations and delusions, is frequent and debilitating in some people with Parkinson's Disease. Pimavanserin, which is a serotonin 5-HT2A inverse agonist that is presently being assessed, aims to treat Parkinson's Disease psychosis. A clinical trial assessed the effect of Pimavanserin.  

They took 40mg pimavanserin per day. The primary measure was the antipsychotic benefit using the Parkinson's disease-adapted scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS-PD). According to the Parkinson's disease-adapted scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS-PD) those people taking pimavanserin reduced their score by 5.79 compared with a reduction of 2.73 by those taking a placebo. Over 10% of the patients discontinued because of an adverse event. However, in previous clinical trials there was either no effect Complete abstract, or it was beneficial for some but not all measures of psychosis Complete abstract. In order to refer to this article on its own click here.  

 

10th November 2013 - New research

THE PREVALENCE OF HEADACHES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neurological Sciences [2013] Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print]]  Complete abstract

Researchers assessed the prevalence of headache in people with Parkinson's Disease and the association between the side of Parkinon's Disease symptom onset and the side of their headache. Headaches were found to occur significantly less in people with Parkinson's Disease, 40% of whom had headaches, than in people who do not have Parkinson's Disease, 70% of whom had headaches.   The prevalence of headaches being significantly lower in people with Parkinon's Disease is unexplained by the researchers.

Fewer people with Parkinson's Disease (74%) had headaches throughout life in contrast to the 94% of people who had headaches throughout life who did not have Parkinson's Disease.  Considering only people who had headaches during the previous year, people with Parkinson's Disease had a higher association with migraine rather than tension headaches compared to people who did not have Parkinson's Disease. The headache side in people with Parkinson's Disease was also on the same side as the side of Parkinson's Disease onset in 84 % of people.   In order to refer to this article on its own click here.  

 

6th November 2013 - New research

THE CAUSES OF FALLS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska [2013] 47 (5) : 423-430 (Rudzinska M, Bukowczan S, Stozek J, Zajdel K, Mirek E, Chwala W, Wójcik-Pedziwiatr M, Banaszkiewicz K, Szczudlik A.)   Complete abstract

Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska [2013] 47 (5) : 431-437 (Rudzinska M, Bukowczan S, Stozek J, Zajdel K, Mirek E, Chwala W, Wójcik-Pedziwiatr M, Banaszkiewicz K, Szczudlik A.)   Complete abstract

People with Parkinson's Disease suffer falls more frequently than most other people. Over the year falls occurred in 54% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Around 20% of people with Parkinson's Disease fell frequently. This occurred more commonly with age.

Analysis of causes of falls revealed that sudden falls were the most common (31%), followed by episodes of freezing and festination (19%), neurological and sensory disturbances (mostly vertigo) (12%), environmental factors (12%), postural instability (11%), orthostatic hypotension (4%), and severe dyskinesia (3.6%). In people with Parkinson's Disease, factors due to themselves were dominant, whereas in the control group external factors were responsible for falls with the same frequency. Every third fall intensified the fear of walking. Over a third (34%) of falls caused injuries. Among them bruises of body parts other than the head were most frequent.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here.  

   

                                                                                                                                                                              

 

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