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OCTOBER 2016

 

28th October 2016 - New research

AIR POLLUTION INCREASES THE RISK OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula NO2. Nitrogen dioxide is an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of nitric acid, millions of tons of which are produced each year. At higher temperatures it is a reddish-brown gas that has a characteristic sharp, biting odour and is a prominent air pollutant. Air pollution, especially as nitrogen dioxide, has been found to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's Disease.

High exposure to nitrogen dioxide, largely because of pollution, trebled the risk of Parkinson's Disease. Another study suggests that ambient air pollution exposure, especially from traffic-related pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide also increases the risk of Parkinson's Disease. Previous studies have shown that lower exposures to nitrogen dioxide in air pollution did not significantly increase the risk of Parkinson's Disease.

Nitrogen dioxide toxicity causes the nitration of the tyrosine residues of tyrosine hydroxylase. Tyrosine hydroxylase is the enzyme that produces L-dopa and eventually dopamine. It is by this means that nitrogen dioxide has its adverse effects.

References : Environmental Research [2016] 151 : 713-720 (P.C.Lee, O. Raaschou-Nielsen, C.M.Lill, L.Bertram, J.S.Sinsheimer, J.Hansen, B. Ritz), Complete abstract  

Environmental International [2016] 96 : 75-81 (P.C.Lee, L.L.Liu, Y.Sun, Y.A.Chen, C.C.Liu, C.Y.Li, H.L.Yu, B.Ritz)  Complete abstract    In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

22nd October 2016 - New research

L-DOPA INHALER FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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CVT-301 is the name of an inhaled version of L-dopa presently being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. CVT-301 uses the ARCUS inhalation technology, which delivers a reliable and consistent drug dose with a compact, breath actuated inhaler. It uses a dry powder and inhaler combination that is unique in its ability to deliver a large, precise dose independent of inspiratory flow rate from a simple, easy-to-use device suitable for convenient self-administration.

Among people with Parkinson's Disease inhaling CVT-301 as a single 50mg dose during an "off" period, 77% of them showed an increase in plasma L-dopa within 10 minutes.

Only 27% of people with Parkinson's Disease taking oral carbidopa/levodopa reached the same levels. The improvements in motor function were seen as quickly as 5 and 15 minutes after administration, which were the earliest assessment times. So the effect may have been even quicker. The most common adverse effect was a cough. All cough events were mild to moderate, occurred at the time of inhalation, resolved rapidly, and became less frequent after initial dosing. Less common adverse effects were dizziness and headache. There were no adverse effects on cardiovascular or lung function.

The speed of effect of the L-dopa inhaler and its limited adverse effects could enable it to be widely used when a rapid effect on Parkinson's Disease is required.

Reference : Science Translational Medicine [2016] 8 (360) : 360ra136 (M.M.Lipp, R. Batycky, J.Moore, M.Leinonen, M.I.Freed)  Complete abstract  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

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