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JULY 2014

 

29th July 2014 - New research

DISCOVERY OF NEW PARKINSON'S DISEASE GENETIC FACTORS

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Nature Genetics [2014] (27 July) (M.A.Nalls, N.Pankratz, C.M.Lill, C.B.Do, D.G. Hernandez, M.Saad, A.L.De Stefano, E.Kara, J.Bras, M.Sharma, C.Schulte, M.F.Keller, S.Arepalli, C.Letson, C.Edsall, H.Stefansson, X.Liu, H.Pliner, J.H.Lee, R.Cheng, et al) Complete abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                    
Six new genetic risk factors for Parkinson's Disease have been discovered. Scientists have identified more than two dozen genetic risk factors involved in Parkinson's Disease, including six that had not previously been reported.

They conducted an extensive analysis of Parkinson's Disease genetic studies. Twenty six sites were identified as having a significant genetic association with Parkinson's Disease. These and six additional sites that had previously not been reported were then tested. In total, they identified and replicated 28 independent risk variants for Parkinson's disease across 24 loci (positions on the gene). Although the effect of each individual genetic risk was found to be small, a risk profile analysis showed that there was a substantial cumulative risk of developing Parkinson's Disease because of them. The risk was actually tripled when several genetic risk factors occurred simultaneously.

Their results suggested that the more variants a person has the greater the risk, which is up to three times higher for developing Parkinson's Disease in some cases. Genetic causes of Parkinson's Disease usually make Parkinson's Disease more likely rather than inevitable. Although genetic causes of Parkinson's Disease are uncommon the actual prevalence is unknown. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

27th July 2014 - New research

NASAL DELIVERY OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE TREATMENT

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Expert opinion on drug delivery [2014] 11 (6) : 827-842 (S.Md, S.Haque, M.Fazil, M. Kumar, S.Baboota, J.K.Sahni, J.Ali) Complete abstract
                                                                                                                                                                                     Researchers evaluated whether prepared nanoparticles would be able to target Parkinson's Disease treatments to the brain via the nasal route, thereby enhancing their bioavailability. They tested the method using an optimised nanoformulation of the dopamine agonist bromocriptine for direct nose-to-brain delivery.

The percentage accuracy observed for intra-day and inter-day batch samples was very high. Bromocriptine was found to be stable in all exposed conditions. Bromocriptine nanoparticles also showed greater retention into the nostrils for about four hours. Direct bromocriptine nanoparticle nose-to-brain transport was shown to then bypass the blood-brain barrier. Most importantly, bromocriptine nanoparticles administered nasally showed significantly high dopamine concentrations.

The researchers concluded that Nanoparticle drug delivery system could be potentially used as a nose-to-brain drug delivery carrier for improving the existing means of treating Parkinson's Disease. In order to refer to this article on its own click here

 

23rd July 2014 - News release

APOMORPHINE CLINICAL TRIAL FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Clinical trials are being undertaken of APL-130277, which is an easy-to-administer, fast acting reformulation of the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Apomorphine is the only approved drug for "off" episodes. As many as half of all people with Parkinson's Disease have "off" episodes in which they have impaired movement or speaking capabilities.

Apomorphine is normally sold as Apokyn, which is injectable. For more information go to Apokyn However, 85% of Apokyn patients have an injection site reaction due to apomorphine's acidity and so must continuously change the injection site. APL-130277 contains a buffer that protects the patient from the acidic properties of Apokyn.

CTH-105 is a Phase 2 clinical study of APL-130277. APL-130277 will be studied in 16 people with Parkinson's disease who have not used apomorphine and who experience at least one daily "off" episode, with a total duration of "off" in any 24-hour period of at least 2 hours. This open study will examine the effect of APL-130277 on relieving "off" episodes over a single day, with dose-titration used to determine dose strengths necessary for future clinical use.

In particular, the dose strength information is necessary in order to conduct the larger CTH-300a efficacy study in apomorphine naive patients, which is expected to commence at the end of 2014. The primary means of assessment will be the change in the UPDRS III score, which is the most widely used Parkinson's Disease symptom questionnaire. For more information go to Cynapsus  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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17th July 2014 - New research

SOCIAL PHOBIAS ARE COMMON IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment [2014] 10 : 829-834 (B.K.Gultekin, B.Ozdilek, E.E. Bestepe) Complete abstract

Researchers aimed to investigate the frequency of social phobias in people with Parkinson's Disease. They also explored the relationship between social phobia and the characteristics of Parkinson's Disease, and the frequency of other psychiatric disorders in Parkinson's Disease.

Social phobia (Social anxiety disorder) is a persistent fear about social situations and being around people. Much more than just shyness it can causes intense, overwhelming fear over what may just be an everyday activity like shopping or speaking on the phone. People affected by it may fear doing or saying something they think will be humiliating. For more information go to Social Phobias Social phobia was diagnosed in 42% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Of those, 58% also had depression, 53% also had anxiety, and 17% also had panic disorders. Social phobia was more frequent in : males, early-onset Parkinson's Disease, people with a long duration of Parkinson's Disease, the presence of postural instability, and with the use of a high L-dopa intakes.

Social phobia is frequently observed in Parkinson's Disease. Therefore, the researchers suggest that the assessment of people with Parkinson's Disease patients should always include psychiatric evaluations, particularly for social phobia.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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14th July 2014 - New research

FREQUENT MISDIAGNOSIS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Neurology [2014] Jun 27[Epub ahead of print] (C.H.Adler, T.G.Beach, J.G.Hentz, H.A.Shill, J.N.Caviness, E.Driver-Dunckley, M.N.Sabbagh, L.I.Sue, S.A.Jacobson, C.M.Belden, B.N. Dugger)  Complete abstract

Researchers aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease using neuropathologic diagnosis as the standard. The accuracy of diagnosis was found to be very poor.

Data were used to determine the predictive value of a clinical Parkinson's Disease diagnosis, using two clinical diagnostic confidence levels : PossPD (never treated or not clearly responsive) and ProbPD (responsive to medications).

Using neuropathologic findings of Parkinson's Disease as the standard, this study established a finding of only 26% accuracy for a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease in untreated patients, 53% accuracy in early Parkinson's Disease of less than five years duration that was responsive to medication, and 85% diagnostic accuracy in Parkinson's Disease of longer duration that was medication-responsive. Clinical variables that improved diagnostic accuracy were medication response, motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and hyposmia (reduced sense of smell).ic accuracy in Parkinson's Disease of longer duration that was medication-responsive.

This study showed that a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease identifies people who will have pathologically confirmed Parkinson's Disease with a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 68%. For more information concerning the diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease go to Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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10th July 2014 - New research

-ASARONE INCREASES L-DOPA IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology [2014] Jun 7 [Epub ahead of print] (L.Huang, M.Deng, S.Zhang, Y.Fang, L.Li)  Complete abstract

In order to increase the effect of L-dopa it is usually administered in combination with a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. In Sinemet, L-dopa is combined with carbidopa. In Madopar, L-dopa is combined with benserazide. The co-administration of -asarone and Levodopa is being developed as a means of improving the effect of L-dopa even further.

-asarone is found in the flowering plant acorus and also in asarum, which is known as wild ginger. For more information go to Ansarone

In animal studies the use of L-dopa in combination with -asarone was compared to the use of existing methods of treating Parkinson's Disease. Dopamine levels were found to increase in the brain (in the striatum) and in blood plasma in response to -asarone. The co-administration of -asarone and L-dopa could also increase the levels in blood plasma of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the enzyme responsible for the formation of L-dopa. Altogether, -asarone was found to have an effect on converting L-dopa into dopamine by modulating the activity of dopamine metabolism.

The mechanism of co-administration of -asarone and L-dopa is different from that of Sinemet and Madopar in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. The co-administration of -asarone and L-dopa may be more beneficial to Parkinson's Disease treatment than the existing methods and so could eventually replace them.  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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5th July 2014 - New research

THE WORLDWIDE PREVALENCE OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Movement Disorders [2014] Jun 28 [Epub ahead of print] (T.Pringsheim, N.Jette, A.Frolkis, T.D.Steeves)   Complete abstract

Researchers sought to synthesize studies on the prevalence of Parkinson's Disease to obtain an overall view of how the prevalence varies by age, gender, and geographic location. Geographic location was stratified by the following groups : Asia, Africa, South America, Europe / North America / Australia. Data were analyzed by age group, geographic location, and gender.

Analysis of worldwide data showed a rising prevalence of Parkinson's Disease with age, with (per 100,000) : 41 in 40 to 49 year olds, 107 in 50 to 59 year olds, 173 in 55 to 64 year olds, 428 in 60 to 69 year olds, 1087 in 70 to 79 year olds, and 1903 in those aged older than 80.A significant difference was seen in prevalence geographically only for people who were 70 to 79 years old, with a prevalence of 1601 (per 100,000) in people in North America, Europe, and Australia, compared to only 646 (per 100,000) in people from Asia. Differences in prevalence according to gender was found only for people who were 50 to 59 years old, with a prevalence of 41 in females and 134 in males.

Parkinson's Disease prevalence worldwide increases steadily with age. Some differences in prevalence according to geographic location and gender can be detected. For more information concerning the prevalence of Parkinson's Disease go to the Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease  In order to refer to this article on its own click here

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